Medieval Monday: The One True Century

It’s So Cold, You Can See My Rivets Through My Surcoat!

Depending on who you ask, global cooling began to happen sometime between the late 1200’s and 1300. And, also depending on who you ask, this either begins the period known as the Little Ice Age or it ends the period known as the Medieval Warm Period. But either way, the weather in Europe becomes cooler and wetter and this is disastrous for their grain crops—especially wheat, which accounted for about 2/3rds of the medieval peasant’s calorie intake.

The population was also at its maximum and, even when the weather was good, it was everything the land and crops and technology of the time could do to adequately feed everyone. When the weather takes a turn for the worse, reoccurring famines throughout Europe become the norm.

The Poker Goes WHERE?

Edward II was almost as bad a king as John. His penchant for setting men of no standing over his nobles and swirling rumors that he was homosexual caused his nobles to rebel against him (twice) and throw down his favorites. His wife, Isabella, was likewise incensed when he ignored her (and gave her jewels to his male favorites!). She eventually took a lover, Roger Mortimer, and together—and in conjunction with many of the other nobles of England—they deposed Edward. Edward died later in captivity—murdered, so it was said, by a red hot poker up the bum.

Edward II

 

The Trinitarian Papacy

In 1305, a Frenchman was elected Pope Clement V after a contentious conclave. He decided that he didn’t need to live in Rome, so he set up his court in Avignon. The Papacy stayed there for a total of seven papal reigns (67 years) and became infamous for its corruption and the undue influence of the French kings.Popes

Pope Gregory XI finally moved the Papacy back to Rome in 1376, but his successor proved unpopular with the cardinals, some of whom elected another pope, who set up a rival papacy in—you guessed it—Avignon. Before the Great Schism was over in 1414, there would be multiple popes and anti-popes—sometimes as many as three at one time.

The Hundred Years (More or Less) War

Edward’s son, Edward III, is crowned king at 14, but his mother rules as Regent with Roger Mortimer as a close advisor. Roger is soon as unpopular as Edward II’s favorites had been and after Edward III turns 17, he throws off his mother’s regency—putting her under house arrest—and has Roger executed.

In 1337, Edward makes a claim to the French throne through his mother, beginning an on-again, off-again war between the two countries that will last for a little more than a century. And, for most of that time, France’s wealth pours into England, making it very rich.

Plague

In 1346-47, a new disease came from the East and entered Western Europe through a port in Italy. Thanks to weakness of the population due to the famines and a series of animal plagues (murrains), Plague spread over the entirety of Europe and into the westernmost parts of Russia. It ravaged the population severely for three consecutive summers, then continued to make localized and somewhat less severe appearances for the better part of a decade. After 1360, Plague would be a reoccurring feature in Europe, but more akin to other disease outbreaks, such as smallpox. It is estimated that in the initial outbreak, Europe lost between 1/3rd and 2/3rds of her population. Europe would not regain her population numbers until the 17th century—and, in some places—not until the 18th or even 19th centuries.Plague

Useless Trivia: “The Black Death” is actually a post-medieval term. In period it was known as “The Great Pestilence” or “The Plague”. Incidentally, the medical term is also just “Plague.” Bubonic Plague is actually just one of three manifestations of Plague.

Additional Reading:

A sample of medieval accounts of Plague and its social effects: Eyewitness to History

The DNA of Y. pestis: Nature

14th Century Reenactor Porn: Pinterest

Previous Posts:

All Roads Lead to Rome

The Dark Ages

Charles in Charge

Make Haste to Hastings

Now Boarding Crusades 1-9 (Part 1)

Now Boarding Crusades 1-9 (Part 2)

Medieval Monday: The Middle Middle Ages

Medieval Monday: The Middle Middle Ages

Medieval Mondays are back! And with (sort of) better illustrations. If you need a refresher:

All Roads Lead to Rome

The Dark Ages

Charles in Charge

Make Haste to Hastings

Now Boarding Crusades 1-9 (Part 1)

Now Boarding Crusades 1-9 (Part 2)

What a Tedious Little Man

Prince John comes to the English throne in 1199 upon Richard the Lionheart’s death. And pretty much everything you’ve ever heard about him is true. He was so tyrannical and money-grubbing that his barons rebelled and he was forced to sign the Magna Carta at Runnymede in 1215 to guarantee the rights of his subjects. However, he soon broke the agreement and a civil war broke out.

King John

Even though Magna Carta ultimately failed to rein in John, it did serve as a template for all future laws in England limiting the king’s power (and was the basis for our Bill of Rights). The coalition of barons also introduced the idea of nobles having a say in the government which would later develop into Parliament.

Shocking Trivia! The King of France—supported by some of the rebellious barons—invaded England and ruled part of it for a year. But after John’s death in 1216, the barons united behind young Henry III and his regent, William the Marshal, and King Louis I was forced to sign a peace treaty and leave. Why do you never see him listed among the kings of England? The treaty included a provision stating that Louis had never actually been a king of England.

The Mongol Hordes

Trouble wasn’t just brewing in England during the 13th century. Eastern Europe was having to deal with the Mongol hordes for most of the century. In 1223, Genghis Kahn invaded Russia. From 1238 to 1241 Genghis’ son, Ogedei, invaded Russia (again), destroyed Kiev, defeated a European coalition force in (modern-day) Poland, and reached the gates of Vienna. Only Ogedei’s death forced the Mongols to retreat.

Genghis Khan

Mongke, grandson of Genghis, succeeds Ogedei and he spends his time harassing Muslims throughout the Middle East—much to the delight of Christians there. The famous Kublai Kahn, however, only operates in the Far East, and after his death in 1294, the Mongolian Empire begins to fall apart.

Around the World in 35 . . . Years

In 1260, 6-year-old Marco Polo sets out with his father and uncle on a trip to the other side of the known world. He won’t return until 1295. His accounts include real things that he saw (such as paper money in China) and fantastical stories that he heard along the way (with no real distinction between the two). He is credited with bringing the pasta noodle to Italy from China, and his voyage marks the beginning of Europe’s exploration of distant lands.

Useless Trivia: In 1284, an Italian creates wearable eyeglasses (for reading).

Hammer of the Scots . . . and the Welsh . . . and the Jews

In 1282, Prince Llewelyn, last of the Welsh princes, dies in an ambush and the following year, Edward I of England—known as “Longshanks” for his great height—conquerors all of Wales.

In 1290, Edward expels all the Jews in England. They will not be allowed to live in the country again until Oliver Cromwell invites them back in the 17th century.

In 1292, the Scottish nobility ask Edward to mediate rival claims to the throne of Scotland. Edward gladly assists, then turns around and declares that Scotland is his vassal state. This gives rise to William Wallace, Robert the Bruce, and the wars for Scottish independence that last into the early 14th century.

Bannockburn

Useless Trivia: Edward I has a fearsome reputation as an oppressor of everyone who wasn’t English, but he was very devoted to his wife. He appears to have never been unfaithful to her and after she died, he had crosses erected along the route of her funeral procession as a tribute to her.

Also note that Longshanks is known as Edward I, even though Edward the Confessor came before him. Apparently the Norman invasion reset the numbering system.

Additional Reading:

If you want to know the story behind the picture of Bannockburn, you can find it here on Scotland’s History. (What isn’t mentioned is that the Bruce and de Bohun had bad blood between them predating the battle; that’s why Henry charged the Bruce before the battle was even joined. Also, don’t let the word “river” fool you. Bannockburn is a ditch. Or, if you’re in a generous mood, it’s a creek. But it’s no river by any American standard. It is, of course, possible that it was wider and deeper during the middle ages; reclamation of swamps and narrowing of rivers to make more farmland is a very old practice.)

July 10, 2010 – Plinky is Here

Welcome to my first Plinky post.  Plinky is a new app that gives you a question everyday that you can answer.  It helps break writer’s block for bloggers.  Not that I don’t have things to write about for my blog—I have all sorts of things I can share—but I’m still so busy writing on my book that I don’t have much time to spare.  Plinky posts are, by the nature of their questions, short (at least by my standards), so it’s something that can keep me writing on my blog (so I don’t lose my audience) without bogging me down in blog writing instead of putting my effort into my books.

I wasn’t that impressed with Westminster Abbey

As far as church architecture goes, Westminster is not especially beautiful or awe-inspiring.  And part of what detracts from its beauty is the fact that it has been such a popular place to be buried since the 1100’s that it’s crammed-full of funerary effigies, busts, brasses and stones.

Individually, many of these monuments are quite nice, and a good secondary source for medieval clothing and armor—not that they will let anyone take pictures (as medieval re-enactors, my husband and I were especially disappointed by that fact). But there are so many of these memorial monuments in the church that you can’t really see them. It’s like trying to look at individual trees in a dense forest. Walkways are so narrow between some of them that you have to turn sideways to slide through. I told my husband it was trying to get through some old person’s attic—only instead of Christmas decorations and old children’s toys and clothes from three decades ago in boxes, it’s piles of stone monuments.

The other thing that was disappointing was the coronation chair. It’s neat that they still have the original coronation chair going back to the early middle ages, but it’s not what you’d think of as a throne at all. It looks like a poorly-made chair that’s been graffitied by a steady stream of school children. It’s not even nice by medieval furniture standards. And it’s quite surprising that no one ever remade/refinished it in all these centuries. People didn’t used to be so particular about preserving historic antiques, and as the middle ages went on, people invested more and more money in the show. Given that I know what some people’s coronation clothing looked like—and how much money it cost—it seems odd that they would be crowned on such a plain, cheap-looking chair.

My husband and I actually much preferred St. Mary’s Church in Warwick. It was a nicely-proportioned church and it had some wonderful effigies—but not too many—and they let us take pictures. Score!